HAL AMCA: Why India Needs The Private Sector To Develop An Indigenous 5th/6th Gen Stealth Fighter
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HAL AMCA: Why India Needs The Private Sector To Develop An Indigenous 5th/6th Gen Stealth Fighter

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It is no secret that former defence minister, the late Mr. Manohar Parrikar
single handedly resurrected the indigenous ADA/HAL TEJAS fighter from
oblivion. It needed his intense intervention to transform the fighter project
on track. It was indeed to his credit and his herculean efforts that saw the
TEJAS program succeeded in getting inducted into the Air Force. The culprits
for this situation were many, who both advertently and inadvertently were
responsible to scuttle the program.
Speaking about the chequered journey with
Nitin A Gokhale, the former Director of ADA and Project Director of TEJAS program, Commodore
CD Balaji (Retd), who is widely regarded as one of the main architects of the
TEJAS program said, “Actually in 1983, the government decided to set up ADA
with a small team to find out whether India can build and develop an
indigenous aircraft or not? Dr Kota Harinarayana was heading that group and
that is how it was started. However, the final Cabinet approval for full-scale
design and development of TEJAS prototypes was given in 1993 – 10 years down
the line. That is the actual start point of the program formally. It was not
1983 but 1993 was the base year for the journey”. The first trigger of
the project was when the fighter took to the skies for the first time for a
short sortie of 18 minutes on 4 January 2001. It took nearly 22 years before
the program could mature into an advanced, modern and contemporary viable
platform. Given India’s existing industrial infrastructure during the 1990s
and its aviation development experience, this was indeed a remarkable
achievement. It is worthy to note that Dassault which has 92 years, General
Dynamics (Lockheed-Martin) has 69 years, Northrop Grumman which had 69 years
and among other global manufactures, typically take around 15 years to develop
and field a fighter jet platform to fruition.

While we must celebrate the induction of the indigenous fighter, a major
challenge for HAL will be to augment its production capacity, which is
currently at only eight Tejas fighters per year. This needs to be doubled for
the IAF to get the requisite number of fighters. IAF only has 32 fighter
squadrons against an approved strength of 42, and any more slippages will be
detrimental to India’s security posture.

The Need of The Hour

One of the key objectives mentioned in the new Defence Acquisition
Procedure (DAP) 2020 is to achieve self-reliance (‘Aatmanirbhar’
campaign) in defence equipment. In this regard, calling for greater
private sector participation in the defence production sector, the PM Modi
in Feb 2021 said “without the participation of the private sector, the
21st century ecosystem of the defence sector cannot stand on its feet,”
this statement was made while addressing a webinar with industry chambers
on effective implementation of the Union Budget’s provisions in the
defence sector. The PM said the government, the public and private sectors
have to work in accordance with a “timebound action plan and roadmap” to
ensure India builds a robust defence-industrial base and emerges as a
major arms exporter.

He assured industry captains that any defence equipment that can be
designed, developed and produced in India will no longer be imported.
“Smaller countries are also now looking up to India to meet their needs in
defence because India is capable of providing low cost manufacturing and
delivering quality products,” he added. Ruing the fact that India was
among the biggest arms importers in the world, he said, “ Indians don’t
lack talent and capabilities. It had become an easy way out to import
weapons earlier.” he said.

The various types of defence hardware includes armoured and combat
vehicles, radars, electronic warfare equipment, warships, submarines,
avionics, military aircraft, safety and ballistic products, armaments and

Efficiency, Accountability, Talent And Rewards

There are several examples of the private sector delivering the products to
the armed forces. A prime example being the L&T made K9-Vajra tracked
howitzer which has seen deliveries months ahead of schedule, clearly an
unprecedented phenomena for the armed forces. Delays and quality issues are
the hallmark of defence equipment made by the DPSUs leading to serious
issues with regard to defence preparedness. TATA Group, Bharat Forge
(Kalyani, Stump Schuele & Somappa (SSS Defence) are the other key
players in the sector. A veritable example is SSS Defence has developed in
quick time a family of rifles comprising an assault rifle based on the
7.62×39mm cartridge, a carbine, and a designated marksman rifle. It is also
developing a light machine gun. Thus, SSS became the first private Indian
firm to have developed sniper rifles when it’s Viper and Saber range of
rifles were released. Many private sector companies also make equipment for the Indian space and integrated missile development programs. Therefore, it is
high time the private sector’s competence and potential are given due
consideration by the government.

AMCA Key To Force Projection Along The LoC And LAC

Given the protracted skirmishes the army and the air force face and confront
along the LoC and LAC, AMCA would play a critical role to ensure security
along the border. Besides, it is evident that there is no open information on
the detailed specifications and capabilities of Chinese stealth fighters as
they are cloaked in a deceitful secrecy, since this is used to amplify their
propaganda machinery and belligerence against India and the west. Once, the
technologies for the AMCA is developed (which is undergoing under various DRDO
affiliated agencies) and matures, India’s stealth fighter could be far
superior to the Chinese and could very well even match western platforms.
India’s learning curve in developing the TEJAS could very well hasten the development of
the AMCA.

However, to develop the AMCA the govt should involve the private sector along
with ADA to develop a comprehensive ecosystem for the development and production
of the stealth fighter. Otherwise, the gestation period from development
to deployment cycle could face the same fate as the TEJAS.

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